Jaman VOCSesuai dengan namanya, pada abad 17 -18 pulau ini sangat sibuk disinggahi oleh kapal-kapal VOC untuk bongkar muat barang dan sekaligus sebagai tempat galangan kapal dan markas belanda untuk menyerang daratan batavia yang saat itu ada dalam kekuasaan pangeran Jayakarta. Oleh karena itu penduduk setempat menyebutnya pulau Kapal. Antara tahun 1803-1810, pulau Onrust 3 kali digempur oleh Inggris dan terakhir pada tahun 1810 Armada Inggris yang dipimpin oleh Admiral Edward Pellow menghancurkan sarana dan prasarana Pulau Onrust. Saksi sejarah atas peperangan ini yaitu masih kokohnya benteng Martelo di pulau Cipir dan bangunan menara di pulau Bidadari.. dan di bagian pojo pulau ini masih dijumpai pekuburan Belanda dimana jasad Maria dikuburkan. Maria sangat dikenal karena Ia satu-satunya penghuni kuburan ini yang masih bisa dilacak keberadaannya melalui prasasti yang ditinggalkannya. Kono, gadis Belanda yang meninggal muda di Hindia BElanda ini masih menampakan sosoknya di malam hari. Bahkan untuk membuktikan kebenaran cerita ini pernah salah satu stasiun TV swasta menggelar acara UKA-UKA di tempat ini.2. Jaman Penjajahan Belanda
Kejadian awal ( peristiwa penting Abad 17)
Alasan VOC untuk memiliki pulau ini
1610…. VOC want to do banten monopoly in the trade and seek new trade center, fell on the Jayakarta options that have sunda kelapa harbor. VOC then ask permission from the prince Jayakarta to use one of the island located in the Jakarta Bay. Prince Jayakarta approve the request. Created to the agreement, which contains dutch may take the wood to repair and ship them in the Jakarta Bay in the agreement signed on 10 – 13 November 1610
VOC again ask permission to build a shipyard in the Jakarta Bay, because the ship – the ship they often must undergo repairs after a long travel prince jayakarta gave the county permission of the island, which has extensive 12 ha, which is in about 14 km from the mainland by the island VOC given the name the island Onrust
1613 VOC start development on the island of Onrust up with the shipyard and warehouse. Jan Pieterszoon Coen also want to put colonies on the island of Onrust sent to the family in Chinese Onrust
1615 Onrust island has become a shipyard and warehousing. On the island there is also a small hospital to treat the sick sailors that while the city of Batavia has not been established
1616 Jan Pieterszoon Coen developed Onrust to become a frontline of defense because of increased threats by the people of Banten and the British. Coen gathered armada which consisted of 15 ship on the island to the keep the British Armada under command of Sir Thomas Dale ( Former Governor of colony Virginia – now state of Virginia USA)
1656 The small fortresses built-shaped sige four with 2 bastion
1671 Stronghold in the widening use of brick and coral reefs in terms 5 with a bastion at each corner. One is the expansion bastion beekhuis goal is also to keep the ship – the ship which is in the fix. Here capacious all the ships from pirate ships Franbois Baron ships and other gadfly.
1674 Built windmill for sawing wood and warehouse – the warehouse to store goods – goods in the pliers will send to the Netherlands / Europe.
1691 Built to two windmill
Siapa itu Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jendral VOC yang memimpin Pulau Onrust
Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.
A national hero in the Netherlands, for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies. A quote of his from 1618 is well known, “Despair not, spare your enemies not, for God is with us” (“Dispereert niet, ontziet uw vijanden niet, want God is met ons” in Dutch). Since the latter half 20th century he has been looked at in a more critical light, as some people view his often violent means to have been excessive.
Coen was known in his time on account of strict governance and harsh criticism of people who did not share his views, at times directed even at the 17 Lords of the VOC (for which he was reprimanded). His overall policies were however never judged to be unreasonable. Coen was known be strict towards subordinates and merciless to his opponents. His willingness to use violence to obtain his ends was too much for many, even for such a relatively violent period of history. When Saartje Specx, a girl who he had been entrusted to care for, was found in a garden in the arms of a soldier, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen showed little mercy in having her whipped instead of drowned in a barrel as he first intended. Cortenhoeff was beheaded.
Coen was born at Hoorn on 8 January 1587 and in 1601 travelled to Rome to study trade in the offices of Justus Pescatore, where he learned the art of bookkeeping. Joining the Dutch East India Company (VOC), he made trading voyages to Indonesia in 1607 and 1612. On the second trip, he commanded two ships and in October 1613 was appointed accountant-general of all VOC offices in Indonesia and president of the head office in Bantam (Indonesian: Banten) and of Jakarta. In 1614, he was made director-general, second in command. On 25 October 1617 the 17 Lords of VOC appointed him their fourth governor-general in the East Indies (of which he was informed on 30 April 1618).
On account of disputes at the head office in Bantam with natives, the Chinese, and the English, the VOC desired a better central headquarters. Coen thus directed more of the company’s trade through Jakarta, where it had established a factory in 1610. However not trusting the native ruler, he deciding in 1618 to convert the Dutch warehouses into a fort. While away on an expedition the English had taken control over the town. Coen managed to reconquer Jakarta, fire destroying most of the town during the process. He rebuilt city and fort. In 1621 the city was renamed Batavia. Coen preferred Nieuw Hoorn, after his hometown, but didn’t get his way.
Coen also set about establishing a monopoly over the trade in nutmeg and mace which could be obtained only from the Banda Islands. The inhabitants of Banda had been selling the spices to the English, despite contracts with the VOC which obliged them to sell only to the VOC, at low prices. In 1621, he led an armed expedition to Banda, taking the island of Lonthor by force after encountering some fierce resistance, mostly by cannons the natives had acquired from the English. A large part of the inhabitants were killed or exiled to other islands.
On 1 February 1623, he handed his post to Pieter de Carpentier and returned to the Netherlands, where he was given a hero’s welcome off the coast of Texel. He then became head of the VOC chamber in Hoorn and worked on establishing new policies. During his absence from the East Indies, difficulties with the English were exacerbated by the Amboyna Massacre. On 3 October 1624 he was reappointed governor-general in the East Indies, but his departure was hindered by the English. In 1625, he married and in 1627 departed incognito for the East Indies with his wife, their newborn child and her brother and sister, starting work on 30 September 1627. After his arrival, the English abandoned Batavia and established their headquarters in Bantam.
Twice during Coen’s term in office, Sultan Agung of Mataram besieged Batavia, in 1628 and 1629. However, Agung’s military was poorly armed and had inadequate provisions of food, and was never able to capture the city.
During Agung’s second siege Coen suddenly died on 21 September 1629. Some say that at Agung’s graveyard in Imogiri, central Java, that parts of Coen’s remains were secreted away from their Batavia resting place, and placed under the stairway to Agung’s grave, as all pilgrims to the grave would walk over them.
perisatiwa penting Abad 18
Kejadian-kejadian di Abad 18
Important Evant In The 18th Century
1721 Tension brew on onrust due to overcrowding
1723 Tension once again brew and 4 companies Of VOC soldier were sent to Onrust to prevent uproar
1735 Overcrowding, due to large number of staff, worker and slaves that reside on the Island. This condition resulted in antoher potinsial uproar.
1757 Approximately 200 worker, which consisted of skilled ship carpenter, hundreds of sailors who were sent to Onrust for hard labor, 300 VOC slaves ( among them are woman and children) and 600 slaves lived on the Island.
1770 Captain james cook had to repair the ship, the “Endeavour” on Onrust on his Return journey froum australia
Kapten James Cook penemu benua Australia di Pulau Onrust
Dalam perjalannnya ke Benua Australia
In 1770, on his return journey from western shores of Australia, Captain James Cook made a stop at Batavia and Onrust. The purpose of this stop was to repair ship, The Bark Endeavour, which sustained quite heavy damage. Cook was impressed by the repair that were carried out by the worker of the ship yard and the by technology that was used, which according to him was the best in the world. The Meticulous work on his ship convinced him and his crew that they would be able to safely make the journey home to England.
Cook was in Batavia for Approximately 3 months, from October to December 1770
James Cook Leather
Tuesday, 23rd. In the P.M. hauled along side one of the wharfes, in order to take out our stores, etc., after which the ship is to be delivers’ into the charge of the proper Officers at Onrust, Who will(as I am informed) Have her down, and repair her, with their own people, while ours must stand and look on who, if we were permitted, could do everything to the ship ourselves.
Pujian Capt. James Cook mengenai Onrust
Employed clearing the ship of Careening gear, her bottom being now thoroughly repaired, and very much to my satisfaction. In justice to the Officers and workmen of this yard, I must say that I do not bealive that there is amarine Yard in the world where work is done with more alertness than here, or where there are better conveniences for heaving ships down both in point of safety and dispatch. Here they heave down by 2 mast; a man not only be strongly bigoted to his own costums, but in some measure divested of reason, that will not allow this, after seeing with how much ease and safety Dutch at Onrust heave down their largest ships
Hisorical Records of James Cook in Batavia
1 October 1770 From Savu, the Bark Endeavour enters the sunda strait.
4 October 1770 Entering the Sunda Strait.
10 October 1770 Arrives in Batavia (but,according to the locals it was October 11)
10 – 17 October 1770 Stays in Batavia and meets with Governor General Petrus Albertus van der parra, to discuss matters relating to the cost of repair and the prepare the necessary papres for repair works to be done at Onrust.
18 October 1770 Sails to Onrust and anchors around 7 fathoms off the Cuyper (Cipir)Island to wait for her turn as the docks are all occupied
23 October 1770 The ship is taken to one of the wharves on cuyper(cipir) Island to unload all supplies and goods that were stowed on the ship.
1 November 1770 The ship has been cleared of all her cargoes
5 November 1770 The ship is taken to one of the repair docks.
6 November 1770 Repair works on the HMS Bark Endeavour commences
7 November 1770 The ship is heaved down on her right side.
7 – 14 November 1770 The ship is under repair.
15 November 1770 The ship is taken back to cuyper (cipir) Island and is docked in one of the wharves.
15 November – 7 December 1770
Gathers all the necessary supplies, water and provisions while the ships mast, pump and sails are being repaired
8 December 1770 Returns to Batavia.
8 – 25 December 1770 Docks in Batavia to obtain additional waters and provisions as well as the necessary equipment. Additional repairs are also performed, among them are the painting of the ships hull and other preparations needed to returns to sea
25 December 1770 Leaves Batavia for the cape of good hope (Tanjung Harapan)
Kejadian penting di Abad 19
Peperangan Antara INGGRIS ana Belanda dalam merebutkan Indonesia
Important Evans in the 19th Century
1800 The English Armada under the command of H.C. Ball Established a Blockade on Batavia. Onrust and its surrounding island were the first to be surrounded. Every single building on Onrust was destroyed
1803 Plans to restore Onrust based on the plans made by D.M Barbier.
1806 The newly restored Onrust was once again attacked by the English under the command of Admiral Edward Pellew.
1809 Governor general H.D.Daendels collected the building materials from the remaining structures.
1810 The English destroyed what ever was left of the buildings that once stood on the island
1810-1816 The English made use of Onrust for their interest
1827 Governor General C.A. Baron Van Der Capellan took an interests in Onrust
1828 Commencement of restoration activities. Natives, Chinese and prisoner were utilized in the construction process
1848 Activities returned to Onrust
1856 Construction of a floating dry dock.
1858 Mentions of steam engine to repair ship made from iron
1877 Two iron dock were already operational , one of which was the best in the world
Peristiwa penting Abad 20
Masa pendudukan Jepang sampai kemerdekaan
1905 Onrust Once again gained attention after being abandoned for so many years. A weather station was constructed on the Onrust and Cipir Islands
1911-1933 Onrust transformed into haj Quarantine
1933-1940 The Island became a detention center for mutineers involved in the “ Zeven provincien” incident . three mutineers who were killed in the bombing were buried on kelor island.
May 1940 Approximately 1200 German civilians and sympathizers of Germany were sent on Onrust to be detained in the intern camp.
1941 During the Japanese occupancy. Onrust’s role began to decline because the Japanese felt that the Island was no longer potential as it has already become known to fighter planes.
Onrust was, instead, used as small penitentiary for hard core criminals.